10 abr. 2012

Sin torero no hay fiesta; integrantes de la cuadrilla

A pesar de que el matador, por su papel en la arena, es quien se lleva toda la atención, no es únicamente él quien hace posible una corrida de toros. El matador forma parte de una cuadrilla de toreros; cada uno de ellos con funciones específicas en cada tercio de la corrida. Una cuadrilla está integrada por el matador, también llamado diestro o espada –quien es el líder del grupo— y por sus subalternos; los picadores, los banderilleros y los mozos de espadas.

Normalmente, en cada corrida de toros, el espectáculo está conformado por tres toros y por tanto, de tres toreros o espadas; cada uno con su respectiva cuadrilla. Para abrir la corrida se hace un paseíllo, que es una especie de desfile en el cual se presentan a las cuadrillas que protagonizarán el evento y el resto de personajes que contribuirán a la realización de la fiesta brava.

En el orden que entran a la arena en el paseíllo tenemos, abriendo el desfile, a los dos alguacilillos, quienes van a caballk y fungen como el conducto por el cual el presidente de la arena transmite las órdenes para su posterior ejecución. En segundo lugar del paseíllo desfilan los matadores, quienes, como su nombre lo sugiere, son los que dan la estocada final para matar al toro en el tercer tercio de la corrida (el de muerte), además de torearlo propiamente (con capota y con muleta). Detrás de cada matador marchan sus tres banderilleros, estos personajes se encargan de clavar 3 pares de arpones de hierro adornado (banderillas) en el cerviguillo del toro durante el segundo tercio de la fiesta brava (el de banderillas). Más atrás, siguiendo a su matador después de los banderilleros, se enfilan los picadores; estos subalternos van montados a caballo y su función es picar al toro con una vara de hierro durante el primer tercio de la corrida (el de varas). Los siguientes en la formación son los monosabios, que son los mozos de los picadores; les ayudan a montar, sujetan al caballo y los protegen si son derribados. Al final del paseíllo se encuentran las mulillas, cuya función es llevarse al toro muerto al desolladero.

Es importante mencionar que los únicos toreros son los picadores, los banderilleros y el matador, puesto que los mozos de espada y los monosabios únicamente asisten a sus toreros (matadores y picadores respectivamente), mientras que los alguacilillos y mulillas cumplen con funciones distintas en el transcurso de la corrida.

Dedicaré los siguientes tres artículos para ahondar un poco más en las características y funciones de cada tipo de torero.

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